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The Predicaments and Hopes of Modern Cities—the Integrative Thinking from the Perspective of General Evolutionism

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DOI: 10.25236/ACEPMB.2019.030


Ba Yongqing

Corresponding Author

Ba Yongqing


Various intricate problems in urban areas have made the modern cities sink into different predicaments, which may make the modern cities be faced with critical predicaments and development threshold in urban systems. The most essential contradiction in the development of urban systems is the choice of “order”. Modern urban predicaments are the result of the disordered urban system. Cities are the resident systems which are best for collective wisdom and evolved by the self-organizing of human beings’ society. Collective wisdom provides internal negative entropy for cities. Thanks to collective wisdom, it is also reasonable that the development of urban areas tend to be advanced, complex and sustainable. It is the deficiency of collective wisdom that leads to the disorder of urban areas. According to the development of wisdom cities, urban areas should set up new wisdom mechanisms and get rid of the predicaments of urban areas in the future.


Urban Areas; Predicament; Wisdom; Collective Wisdom; Negative Entropy; Order