Signaling pathway of MAPK/ERK in tumor cells
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Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) constitute a highly conserved protein-serine/threonine kinases family, including several key members of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinases (JNKs), and the p38 isoforms (P38s). MAPK activity is catalyzed by MAPK kinases (MKKs) and MAPK phosphatases, which regulate the phosphorylation of threonine and tyrosine (T-X-Y) of MAPK . After activation, MAPKs can catalyze the phosphorylation of specific serine and threonine residues of substrates, thus regulating life activities. It signaling cascade regulates many cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and stress response. ERK1/2 is homologous in almost all tissues and is overactivated in tumorigenesis through the Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK (MAPK) pathway. The newly discovered family member ERK5 has been shown to be associated with certain features of cancer development. This paper reported the relationship between MAPK/ERK signaling pathway that has been widely studied at present and human tumorigenesis, and explored the idea of using MAPK as a therapeutic target.
Extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs)；tumorigenesis；tumor metastasis；cancer